Another treatment for Parkinson’s: DBS- FLASHBACK
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) involves the implanting of electrodes in the brain that effectively “inactivate” a certain region. It can be quite sophisticated, using multiple electrodes that can then have different patterns of stimulation. There is a pacemaker that is implanted elsewhere in the body, usually where it can be removed to replace batteries and the like without too bad of side effects (so not in the brain tissue).
In Parkinson’s, the electrodes are surgically implanted into the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi). For a refresher on the basal ganglia pathways, go here. STN excites GPi and GPi inhibits thalamus, both of which effectively decrease movements. In Parkinson’s, patients are having trouble moving due to the decreased dopamine feeding into the basal ganglia loops. Therefore, acting on STN or GPi and effectively inactivating those regions makes it so that movements will be easier.
It is also interesting to note that DBS can be used on other disorders, such as severe cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette’s Syndrome. Tourette’s is characterised by motor and verbal tics that can be very intrusive, not what you usually see on TV (for instance, I know a patient whose uncontrollable tic is to poke their eye and they had blinded that eye with it). DBS of the thalamus usually can be helpful for patients suffering from Tourette’s (I think you can figure out why it might be from what you know about the basal ganglia circuitry).